foaming agent​

日期:2022/8/2 8:50:35 / 阅读: / 来源:本站

foaming agent
    Foaming agent is a kind of auxiliary agent that can make plastic products have bubble structure and add people to the resin. The properties and applications of common foaming agents are as follows. ① Azodicarbonamide is also known as blowing agent AC. Orange crystalline powder, decomposition temperature of about 200 ℃, gas generation of 200~300ml/g, more than 120 ℃ will release a lot of gas, which may explode in a closed container, non-toxic. It is widely used and cheap. It is suitable for calendered products of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene, artificial leather and model foaming products. ② N, n dinitrogenpentaethylenetetramine is also known as blowing agent H. Light yellow crystalline powder, decomposition temperature is about 200 ℃, gas evolution is 260~270ml/g; It can decompose when it is higher than 130 ℃ in the resin or adding decomposition additives; It is flammable, and it is strictly prohibited to contact with acid or open fire. It is mainly used for foaming PVC products. Generally, it is not more than 15% applied in PVC resin. ③ P-toluenesulfonyl hydrazine is also known as blowing agent TSH. White powder, decomposed at more than 100 ℃, with gas evolution of 120ml/g, flammable and non-toxic. It is suitable for foaming a variety of resins, and the cell structure is fine and uniform; This kind of foaming agent does not need to add foaming additives, and cannot be used together with foaming agent h; Note that the temperature during mixing shall not exceed 80 ℃.
2.12.7 burning agent

    An auxiliary agent that can prevent polymer combustion or inhibit flame propagation speed is added to plastic resin, which is called flame retardant. The properties and uses of common flame retardants are as follows. ① Antimony trioxide is also called antimony oxide. White powder, widely used; It can stimulate Wu3 and cause dermatitis in contact with skin. It is suitable for polyethylene, polypropylene smoke polystyrene and thermosetting plastics. With phosphate ester, nitrogen-containing and bromine containing compounds, it has effective synergistic effect, and the flame retardant effect will be better. ② Aluminum hydroxide [a1 (OH) 3 or alzo3 · 3h] white powder can absorb a lot of heat during dehydration reaction and reduce the temperature, which can prevent plastic from catching fire and prevent the spread of flame. Suitable for a variety of plastic resins. ③ Decabromodiphenyl ether white powder is an additive flame retardant. It is suitable for a variety of plastic applications, with good flame retardant effect and good thermal stability. ④ Tetrabromophthalic anhydride light yellow powder. It is suitable for polyester, polystyrene polyolefin and ABS resin. It is not only an additive flame retardant, but also has antistatic effect.⑤ Tetrabromobisphenol A is a light yellow or white powder with low toxicity. It is suitable for epoxy resin and polycarbonate, with good flame retardant effect. It can also be used in polystyrene, ABS, phenolic and other plastics, and can be used as an additive flame retardant. 212.8 electrostatic agents The function of antistatic agent is to prevent or eliminate static electricity on the surface of products after adding this additive to the resin for plastic molding. The properties and uses of commonly used antistatic agents are as follows. ① Antistatic agent TM (chemical name: trihydroxyethyl methyl quaternary ammonium methyl sulfate) is a light yellow viscous oil, which is easily soluble in water. It is suitable for polyester and polyamide resin products, and the dosage is not more than 2%. ② Antistatic agent Sn (chemical name octadecyl dimethyl hydroxyethyl quaternary ammonium nitrate) is brownish red oily viscous substance, which decomposes above 180 ℃; Soluble in water, acetone, acetic acid and other solvents. It is mainly used in PVC, polyester and polyethylene products. After molding products, it can increase the conductivity of the product surface and eliminate the accumulation of static electricity. The dosage shall not exceed 2%. ③ ECH antistatic agent alkyl amide non-ionic surfactant is a light colored waxy solid with a melting point of 40~44 ℃. It is mainly used for soft and semi-rigid polyvinyl chloride decorative film or sheet resin. It is an additive antistatic agent, and the dosage is about 3.5%. 

2.12.9 antifogging agent

    Antifogging agent is an auxiliary agent that can prevent the film from condensing a layer of fine water droplets on the surface in a humid environment. When used in greenhouse film, the film surface of condensed fine water droplets affects the transmission of sunlight, which will have a great impact on crop growth. Common antifogging agents are as follows. ① Glycerol monooleate is used as an additive white wax antifogging agent. It is used in PVC and polyolefin resin to produce agricultural film with the dosage of 0.5% - 1.5%. ② Sorbitan monostearate additive antifogging agent, yellow granular, melting point 60 ℃. For PVC film, the dosage is 1.5% - 1.8%. ③ Polyethylene oxide (20) glycerin monostearate light yellow liquid, suitable for PVC and polyolefin resin, also has antistatic effect, which is more suitable for the application of food packaging film. The dosage is 0.5% - 1.5%.
2.12.10 lubricants
    In the process of heating and melting plastics, in order to reduce the friction resistance between molecules in the resin and between the resin and equipment, so as to improve the fluidity of molten materials or improve the demoulding property of molded products, an auxiliary agent added to the resin is called lubricant. In the molding process of plastic products, the role of lubricants is demoulding, anti adhesion, smoothness and brightening the surface of products. The properties and uses of common lubricants are as follows. ① Calcium stearate white fine powder, melting point about 150 ℃, non-toxic, insoluble in water, has water absorption in the air. It is mostly used as a lubricant in PVC resin and also has the effect of stabilizer. ② Zinc stearate is a white fine powder with a melting point of about 120 ℃. It is non-toxic and insoluble in water. It decomposes into stearic acid and corresponding zinc salt in the presence of strong acid. It is a lubricant and release agent for polystyrene and ABS resin. ③ The white flake of stearic acid, with a melting point of 70 ℃, volatilizes slowly in the environment of 90~100 ℃, is non-toxic, and can be dissolved in ethanol, acetone, styrene butadiene and toluene. It is mainly used for PVC resin with the dosage of 0.3% - 0.5%; The dosage will be sprayed with cream. ④ Stearamide is a colorless flake crystal with a melting point of about 100 ℃ and a boiling point of 250 ℃. It is mainly used in PVC and PS resins. It can also be used as a smoothing agent for polyolefins and an anti adhesion agent for films. Used in PVC calendered film products, the dosage is 0.3%~0.8 ⑤ paraffin is a white solid, the melting point is about 60 ℃, and it is insoluble in water and methanol. It is widely used in the processing and molding of vinyl chloride resin, playing the role of external lubrication and mold release agent. ⑥ Polyethylene wax white powder or sheet, softening temperature is 107 ℃, not applicable to the processing of PVC resin calendering and extrusion molding products, and the dosage is not more than 1%; It can improve the fluidity of polyethylene, polypropylene, ABS and PVC resin melts. 212.11 a certain proportion of filler is added to the resin of filling plastic products in order to reduce the production cost of plastic products or improve some properties of plastic products. This filler can be called filler. It can improve the properties of products, such as improving rigidity, reducing shrinkage, improving coloring effect, improving heat resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, electrical insulation and self heating. However, it will also bring some shortcomings to the products, such as reducing the fluidity of molten materials and increasing the difficulty of forming letter materials; It reduces the toughness of products and affects the transparency of products. The properties and uses of common fillers are as follows. ① Calcium carbonate (cacq3) is a white powder with a particle size of 1.0~1.6um. It is insoluble in water and acid. It decomposes into CO2 in the presence of acid and is non-toxic. It is mainly used in PVC trees, molding boards, pipes, artificial leather and wire insulation protective layers. Calcium carbonate can be divided into light (small particle size diameter) and heavy, which is the most widely used filler for PVC resin molded plastic products. ② White powder of silica with particle size of 07~1.0 μ m。 Used in vinyl resin, it can prevent products from sticking and improve transparency; Adding some white carbon black to PVC resin can improve the fluidity and heat resistance of molten materials, and improve the tensile strength and hardness of products. ③ Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used in polyolefin and polyester products. It can improve the heat resistance, rigidity and weather resistance of parts.
2.12.12 colorant
Colorants are divided into dyes and pigments. Pigments are mainly used as colorants of resins in plastic products. Pigments can be divided into organic pigments and inorganic pigments. Inorganic pigments are most widely used in plastic products; Organic pigments are a branch derived from dyes. Compared with inorganic pigments, they have the advantages of strong coloring power, bright colors, transparency and fine particle size. Their application in plastic products is gradually increasing. (1) Properties and uses of common inorganic pigments ① titanium dioxide (or titanium dioxide) (TiO2) white powder has the best coloring power and hiding power, is heat-resistant, water-resistant, and is not easy to change color. It can be used in the resins of all plastic products, and is opaque. Anatase titanium dioxide is used for indoor products, while rutile titanium dioxide is used for outdoor products. Due to the high price of titanium dioxide, it is often mixed with other white pigments (zinc oxide, lithopone). ② Lithopone white powder is cheap. Its hiding power and coloring power are stronger than that of zinc barium white, but it is not as good as titanium white. It will turn yellow in the sun. Suitable for polyolefin, ABS, polystyrene, polycarbonate and nylon resin products. ③ Zinc oxide (ZnO) white powder, non-toxic, cheap, good light resistance, heat resistance, water resistance, alkali resistance and solvent resistance; Poor acid resistance and low coloring power. Suitable for polystyrene, ABS, phenolic and PVC resin products.④ Cadmium yellow (CDS) light yellow to orange powder has good chemical properties, bright color, and poor coloring power and hiding power than chrome yellow. It is mostly used in plastic products for outdoor use. ⑤ Chrome yellow (PbCrO4) chrome yellow is a kind of product with bright color, good coloring power and covering power, which is toxic; It can be divided into lemon yellow, light chrome yellow, medium chrome yellow, deep chrome yellow and orange chrome yellow. Suitable for PVC, polystyrene, acrylic acid and thermosetting plastic products. ⑥ Iron red (fezo3) and cadmium red (CdSe · MCDs) are red colorants used in many plastics. These two pigments have good coloring power, light resistance, heat resistance and alkali resistance. Iron red is non-toxic and not bright, which is not suitable for application in cable materials, but it is cheap. Cadmium red is bright in color, toxic and expensive. It is not suitable for transparent products. (2) Properties and applications of commonly used organic pigments ① lisolbo red (Robin red) BK purplish red powder, soluble in hot water, heat resistance 150 ℃, good colouring power and transparency. It is a red colorant for a variety of plastic products, which is not suitable for light color or color matching applications. When applying transparent plastic products, the dosage is 0.08% of the resin. ② Phthalocyanine green G dark green powder, with a heat-resistant temperature of 200 ℃, has good heat resistance, light resistance, acid and alkaline resistance and solvent resistance. It is suitable for all kinds of plastic products. The dosage is 0.005%, but the transparency is poor. ③ Phthalocyanine blue dark blue powder, heat-resistant temperature is 200 ℃, strong coloring power, high power, heat resistance, light resistance, acid and alkaline resistance, solvent resistance are good. It is used in most plastic products and blue transparent products. It can be used alone, and the color matching amount is 0.02%. ④ Benzidine yellow G light yellow powder, melting point 317 ℃, insoluble in water, can grow into bright yellow, good heat resistance, light resistance and solvent resistance. Suitable for a variety of plastics. It is used, but not suitable for application in machine grease such as UPVC, polypropylene, nylon, polyformaldehyde and polycarbonate. ⑤ YONGGU yellow HR red yellow powder has good solvent resistance, heat resistance and transparency. It can resist 200 ℃, has no migration, strong covering power and bright color. It can be used for plastic products. The dosage is 0.06%. ⑥ YONGGU yellow GR yellow powder is mostly used in plastic film products. ⑦ YONGGU Orange G orange powder has heat resistance of 140~150 ℃, strong coloring power, good light resistance, heat resistance, acid and alkali resistance, poor transparency and large migration. ⑧ Reduced brilliant orange GR orange red powder, bright color. Used in polyethylene and polyethylene products. Good sun resistance, solvent resistance, migration resistance, acid and alkali resistance. ⑨ Quinacridone violet and plastic violet RL purple red powder are purple colorants for plastic products. They can be used in various plastics and have properties of heat resistance, light resistance and solvent resistance
2.12.13 crosslinking agent is a plastic additive that can crosslink polymers.
    In thermoplastics, crosslinking is also a means to modify a certain polymer. Controlling the appropriate degree of turnover and applying it in PVC, polyethylene and polypropylene can improve the heat resistance, oil resistance, wear resistance and some mechanical properties of this polymer, so as to expand the application range of plastic products. The properties and uses of common crosslinking agents are as follows. ① 25 dimethyl 2,5-Bis (TERT butylperoxy) hexane (AD) colored liquid or self colored powder, with freezing point of 4 ℃, flash point of 55 ℃, thermal decomposition temperature of 179 ℃, low toxicity, used for polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer. The tensile strength and hardness of the products are high. No. 16 ② DCP white powder or paste, melting point 39 ℃, thermal decomposition temperature 171 ℃. Used in ethylene, polypropylene and unsaturated polyester, it has the advantages of high crosslinking efficiency, low volatility, and good transparency and heat resistance of products. But there is a residual odor.③ Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) white crystal or paste, melting point 103 ℃, insoluble in water, thermal decomposition temperature 133 ℃. It is mainly used in thin-walled products of unsaturated polyester.
2.12.14 coupling agent
    Coupling agent is an organic compound that can enhance the adhesion between polymer and various fillers and reinforcing materials, and change some properties of this composite. It is a substance with amphoteric structure. Some groups in its molecules can react with chemical groups on the surface of inorganic substances to form strong chemical bonds; Another part of the group has the property of affinity to organic matter, which can react with organic molecules or physically entangle, and firmly combine the two materials with different properties. The properties and uses of common coupling agents are as follows. ① Y (Methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane is a colorless transparent liquid with boiling point of 255 ℃, flash point of 138 ℃, insoluble in water and soluble in most organic solvents. It is used in polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, ABS, polymethylmethacrylate and other resins. ② R-aminopropyl triethoxysilane is a colorless or yellowish liquid, boiling point 217 ℃, flash point 104 ℃, insoluble in water. It is widely used in PVC resins, and also suitable for polyamide, polypropylene, polycarbonate, melamine and other resins. ③ R- (glycidyl ether) propyl trimethoxysilane is a colorless or yellowish liquid, boiling point 290 ℃, flash point 135 ℃, insoluble in water. It is suitable for PVC, polystyrene, polypropylene, polycarbonate, polyamide, polyester and other resins, and can improve the adhesion and mechanical properties of products. ④ Isopropyl tristearyl titanate is more suitable for the filling system of plastics such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane and epoxy resin, and is particularly effective for dry fillers without free water such as calcium carbonate and hydrated alumina. 212.15 the content of additives in plastic products for food packaging plastic films and containers used for food packaging, the amount of various additives added to the resin before molding, and the maximum amount of additives mentioned below (not mentioned) can be required according to the normal production amount in the hygienic standard gb9685-94). (1) Plasticizer the maximum usage (%) of plasticizer is as follows: dioctyl adipate (DOA) is 35; Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is 10; Phthalic dimethyl (2-ethylhexyl ester, DOP) is 40; Diisooctyl phthalate (d10p) is 40. Dioctyl sebacate (DOS) is 5; Butyl phthaloylglycolate (bp. PG) is 40; Diphenyl isooctyl phosphate (dpop) is 40; Butyl stearate (BS is 5). (2) the maximum amount (%) of stabilizer is as follows: stearic acid mirror (CAST) is 5; Magnesium stearate (MgSt) is 1; Zinc stearate (znst) is 3; Phosphite benzene Diisooctyl ester is 2; Aluminum distearate is 3. (3) The maximum usage (%) of antioxidant antioxidant is as follows: 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (264) is 01; 1,1,3-three(

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